A walk around the Citadel is essential for anyone visiting Roses.
Declared a historical-artistic complex in 1961, the Citadel contains relics of various periods and occupation times.
The military fortification, with its monumental Sea Gate, is a Renaissance-style enclosure of 131.480 m2 built in 1543.
Its interior constitutes an important archaeological site, containing the remains of the Greek town of Rhode, founded in 776 BC by traders from the island of Rhodes; the Hellenistic district, which enjoyed its period of greatest prosperity in the 4th and 3rd C. BC; the Roman villa, dated between the 2nd C. BC and 6th C. AD; the Lombard Romanesque monastery of Santa Maria, from the 11th C.; and discoveries from the 19th C.
The Trinity Castle crowns the Poncella point above the Roses lighthouse. This military construction, which dates from 1544, was erected under the reign of Emperor Charles V.
It has the shape of a five-pointed star, with pronounced angular corners for defence against enemy projectiles.
It is built on a very grand scale, with two meter thick walls. It had three terraces for batteries of cannons, howitzers and mortars, set at different heights, to defend the port and the coast. It had a garrison of up to two hundred men. Though now in a very ruined state, the whole remains is an extraordinary example of a coastal artillery fortress
Inhabited since remote times, Roses possesses one of the most complete and impressive megalithic itineraries of the Costa Brava.
Three large dolmens conserve the memory of the area’s first settlers: the Creu d’en Cobertella (the Cobertella Cross) (3000-2700 BC), the Llit de la Generala (the General’s Bed) (3200 BC) and the Cap de l’Home (the Man’s Cape).
The Creu d’en Cobertella, the largest dolmen in Catalonia, dates from the Neolithic period and was declared a historic and artistic monument in 1964. It has a large gallery covered by a four-ton slab which measures 5.20 m long, 2.45 m wide and 2.14 high.
The tour around the origins of the town also reveals the funeral chamber of the Casa Cremada (the Burnt House) and its two menhirs (4th-3rd millennia BC), and the cave-dolmen of the Rec de la Cuana from 2500 BC.
Aiguamolls de lâ€™EmpordÃ
The Emporda Aiguamolls or Marshes natural parkÂ was declared a protected area after a long and intense defense campaign that began in 1976, intended to avoid the development of the area.
The park itself is divided into three main areas:
The “Estanys” reserve:Â with great areas of cane fields, bull rushes and floodplains.
The “Llaunes” reserve:Â with coastal lakes, salt marshes and dunes.
The “Illa de Caramany” reserve:Â located in the middle of the FluviÃ , where a large quantity of birds nest.